Nothing in the U.S. will summarily invalidate the warranty. But if you do something and the thing that breaks or malfunctions is related to what you did, then BMWNA may deny reimbursement to the dealer and thus to you.
For instance if you replace the bulbs with non-BMW approved bulbs and the electrical system shorts out, then you may have a problem. If you replace the bulbs and your wheel just falls off, then the two are obviously not related and warranty would still apply.
Although many have removed the damper with no problems, I would weigh your mission and riding style first before emulating. I leave mine on for instance because the local twisty hilly roads that I ride, and the way that I ride them (with heavy hands on the steering), I've had my front end get wiggly before even with the steering damper on.
Steering dampers come in handy in two different scenarios that I know of for sure.
1) Very high speeds and the bike gets a bit unstable (not an issue in my opinion with the S)
2) Having the front wheel come off the ground in a crested turn. Upon landing the front wheel, if it's not on the same longitudinal axis as the rear wheel, it may try and wiggle. Whether or not it does is determined by many factors, including how much pressure you have on your bars. I lack finesse and have the front wheel off the ground frequently, thus I've opted for the security of the damper (whether warranted or not, I like having that security).
Just making a different perspective known. I'm sure others have removed theirs to accomodate what their particular mission is and riding style is with no probelms. Nothing wrong with that, but given the right conditions (perhaps a condition that we would never experience in normal riding) any motorcycle can end up with a tank slapper.